Should I Buy Your Motion for Summary Judgment Pack?

When Do you Need the Motion for Summary Judgment Pack?

If the other side has filed a motion for summary judgment against you and you want to defend only, you should get the Motion for Summary Judgment Defense Pack.

If the other side has filed a motion for summary judgment against you, and you want to defend and also file a motion for summary judgment against them on the same case, you should get the Motion for Summary Judgment Omni Pack.

And if you either want to file a motion for summary judgment against them (without their having filed one against you) you should get the Motion for Summary Judgment (Offense) Pack.

What is a Motion for Summary Judgment?

A motion for summary judgment is an “evidentiary” motion. That is, unlike a motion to dismiss, a motion for summary judgment seeks to determine a set of facts that are “uncontested” or not in dispute and asks the court to rule on how the law applies to them. What makes a judgment “summary” is that it is decided without a trial. A “motion” is the request to the court to issue the judgment.

Either party can file a motion for summary judgment. If the other side files one first, you put your response to theirs, and your own motion together and call it a “cross-motion.” Thus “cross-motion” really only refers to timing. Substantively, you will either be filing a motion for summary judgment against them, defending against their motion for summary judgment, or both.

Establish “Uncontested” Facts

Because disputes in the evidence are supposed to be resolved at trial, motions for summary judgment are supposed to be determined based only on “uncontested” facts. But “uncontested” and “facts” are terms of art, as you will see in the materials.  A fact is not established because you say it is so in the motion. A fact can only be established by evidence properly presented to the court. Likewise, a fact is not “contested” simply because you don’t like it or you say it isn’t so – it’s only contested by the admission of evidence that shows it isn’t so.

Illustration

Let’s make up an example to clarify how these things work. Suppose the debt collector is filing a motion for summary judgment that says you owe $1,000 on an old credit card. They put in an old statement showing you supposedly owe the money and an affidavit by one of their robo-signers that says the statement is “accurate” and that you haven’t paid the bill.

Their Case

That is pretty much exactly what the debt collectors do every time. Their evidence that you owe and haven’t paid is the credit card statement and the affidavit. They’ll say it’s “uncontested,” so what do you do?

Your Defense

You will object to the affidavit and credit card statement for legally powerful reasons (as shown by the summary judgment pack) and you will, if you can, add an affidavit of your own that says, roughly, “I don’t owe them, never owed them, didn’t get a statement, and never had an account with the bank they say this came from.”

Your effective objection SHOULD be enough, because it is up to them to present actual, admissible, evidence in support of their “uncontested facts.” But if you can add an affidavit of your own, the effect is much more powerful. Then you are both attacking their evidence and introducing contradictory evidence of your own.

Warning

Merely claiming in the Response to their Motion that you don’t owe the money would not keep their evidence from being “uncontested.” Understand? You must present evidence and attack the validity of their evidence.

Cross-Motions for Summary Judgment

Now (because of the nature of debt cases), if they can’t win a motion for summary judgment against you, you should almost always be able to win a cross-motion for summary judgment against them. That is, they have the burden of proof on their claim. If they can carry that burden, they will win the case. If they can’t, then they should lose (the whole case) – if you show it and file a cross-motion. Therefore, if they file a motion for summary judgment against you, you will almost always want to get the “Omni” MSJ pack. Filing a cross-motion does involve significantly more work, but if you can do so you might save yourself a lot of trouble later.

Your Motion for Summary Judgment

Suppose they don’t file a motion for summary judgment, but you have gone through discovery and found that the only things they have in support of their claims are an affidavit and the old statement used in the above example? As a matter of fact, that is typical. In that case you should consider filing your own Motion for Summary Judgment.

Motions for summary judgment require significant effort and require you to find out and follow various procedures rigorously.

So they are work.

Why You Should Do It

But if you win, you can cut short the process of the lawsuit and avoid trial. And even if you lose your motion for summary judgment you will be educating the judge to the issues and changing the way the judge and other side look at you. Therefore, we suggest you do it – if you have time after finding out through the discovery process that they don’t have what they need.

At a minimum, working your way through a motion for summary judgment will sharpen you tremendously on the law and facts of the case, and it will very likely result in winning one way or the other. Thus we recommend it if you can do it.

Motions for summary judgment are designed for situations where you can show certain decisive facts.

The Motion for Summary Judgment Pack is NOT…

The MSJ pack is not another way to get what you need to defend the lawsuit. It is material aimed at a specific procedural motion and moment in time. Defending yourself requires a commitment to a process. It could include motions to dismiss, answering the petition, filing a counterclaim, conducting discovery, moving to compel discovery, and various pretrial maneuvers. It rarely requires all of these things, but our Litigation Membership is what you need to prepare for the fight.

We would suggest that you might not ever need the motion for summary judgment pack, but even if you do need that, you will also want the litigation membership. The membership is the glue that holds all the parts of the lawsuit together.

Should I Buy Your Motion to Dismiss Pack?

Short Answer: Only if you need to file a motion to dismiss.

Long Answer – As follows:

When Should One Purchase our Motion to Dismiss Pack?

A lot of people buy our Motion to Dismiss Pack on the theory that they want the case against them to go away. It isn’t as simple as that. The motion to dismiss pack is applicable to situations where (1) you have filed a counterclaim and the debt collector moves to dismiss it, or (2) you have some legal basis for arguing that even if everything the petition against you is considered true the debt collector does not have a right to collect from you.

The first of these possibilities – that you are defending against a motion to dismiss – is obvious. If they want to dismiss, you will probably want to defend against that. Your motion to dismiss their claim is more of the question.

Purpose of Motion to Dismiss

A motion to dismiss is a way to “test the adequacy of the petition.” It is NOT a way to test whether the debt collector has evidence to support its lawsuit. Motions to dismiss are therefore appropriate, most generally, when you have a challenge to the company’s right to sue you in a specific court or in general, or when you have a challenge to the court’s power over you. There are also what are known as “equitable” considerations we will discuss.

The Debt Collector’s Right to Sue You

The main way this comes up is in jurisdictions where they have passed regulations on debt collectors which the collector has not followed. Most typically this is an issue of registering or not. Several states require debt collectors to register in some way before pursuing debt – and debt collectors often ignore those regulations. If yours did, a motion to dismiss on that basis would be a good idea.

Another way the right to sue you comes up – much less frequently – is that the petition fails to allege ownership of the debt. This could happen, for example, where ABC Collectors are suing you on a Citibank credit card. If they allege in the petition that they bought the debt, then you will want to find out what evidence they have, but this is part of the suit and not a motion to dismiss. If they fail to allege why you’re supposed to owe them on a debt apparently owing to Citibank, a motion to dismiss is probably in order.

The Court’s Right to Hear the Case

You may want to challenge the court’s power to hear the case against you. This arises in two ways. First, the suit could be brought somewhere other than the jurisdiction in which you live. You live in X county, and they bring suit in Y county and you never lived there. That would likely deprive the court of jurisdiction over you and constitute a violation of the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act.

The other, more common, reason for this sort of motion to dismiss has to do with service. Were you served correctly? And this question can be rather complicated. For present purposes, we merely say that a motion to dismiss is the appropriate way to challenge the court’s power over you, and this is a motion you would want to file before taking any other action in the suit. If you think you were not served properly, in other words, you will probably want to file a motion to dismiss.

“Equitable” Circumstances

There are certain gray areas that might be appropriate for a motion to dismiss, and these are called “equitable” considerations.

“Equity” is a historical reference to the way courts used to be in England, but for our purposes they refer to something more like moral rightness. If the debt collector waited too long to bring suit, if it did something to prevent you from making payments, or if you settled the case previously and they still sued you might all be examples of equitable defenses. While they DO involve evidence beyond the pleadings (the normal boundary line for motions to dismiss), you could probably bring these things as motions to dismiss. You would also be wise to plead them as “affirmative defenses” in your answer if you file an answer

What Motions to Dismiss are NOT for

You don’t file a motion to dismiss because you aren’t satisfied with attachments to the debt collector’s petition or don’t think they have the proof. Yes, you’ll attack their case – but later, and in another way. You don’t file a motion to dismiss because you just want the case to go away. And you don’t BUY a motion to dismiss pack here as an inexpensive way to defend the case in general. Our motion to dismiss pack is a specific product aimed at a specific situation. If it doesn’t apply to your situation, you will simply want to get the Gold Debt Litigation Membership and start doing the things you need to do to win the case.

Motions in Limine

Motions in Limine are pre-trial motions that serve a specific purpose. That is, they are motions designed to preview issues regarding whether certain evidence will be allowed (“admissible”) for the trial and under what circumstances it would or will be admitted. Typically, a court’s final pretrial order will set the time limit and schedule for motions in limine, but even if it doesn’t, you may want to file one.

Remember, they are filed in contemplation of trial – they are not a motion to file in some more general sense. If there is a motion for summary judgment, for example, you don’t file a motion in limine – you oppose the motion and object to the evidence in that motion. You would make all the same arguments, perhaps, but in a different context.

Remember that a court may, or may not, rule on a motion in limine before trial. The idea is to present the objection in a systematic way under conditions that allow the judge to think about it outside of the heat of the moment. It often happens that you’ll present a motion in limine and the judge won’t rule on it because the context of the trial isn’t clear until things start happening in trial. No matter. Make your best argument in the motion and argument and be prepared for whatever the judge does. Pay close attention to what the judge thinks matters regarding whether the evidence will be admitted, and be prepared to argue at trial that those conditions haven’t happened (so the evidence shouldn’t be admitted).

Finally, remember that any ruling by the judge before trial is not necessarily binding at trial. Thus, even if you lose your motion to exclude in limine, you will want to object at trial and take another shot at it. You’d be surprised how often the judge will change his mind. And that means you also have to be prepared for the other side to do the same – and you must remember that in order to preserve your rights you probably have to make your objections again at trial. So think of the motion in limine as a sort of warm up.

 

Motions to Dismiss Part 2

Motions to Dismiss in Debt Collection Cases, Part Two

When you’re being sued on a debt by a debt collector, motions to dismiss can come up in one or both of two ways: you could file one against them – or they could file one against you. More specifically, (1) you could file a motion to dismiss their lawsuit, or (2) they could file a motion to dismiss your counterclaim.

It is also possible that either or both of you could file a motion to dismiss certain affirmative defenses, although this does not happen very often in debt cases.

This is the second part of a two-part article. For the first part, click here. For a video on arguing motions in court, click here.

What Motions to Dismiss Are

 So what is a motion to dismiss? A motion is always the way a litigation party asks the court to take some official action. A motion to dismiss is a motion asking the court to get rid of some part of the other party’s case on the grounds that, even if what the other side says is true, it doesn’t give them the right they claim. For this reason, motions to dismiss are sometimes called motions “for judgment on the pleadings” or “demurrers.” The crucial fact in all of these motions is that all the facts alleged in the pleadings are taken, for purposes of the motion, as granted just as if they had been proven. If the motion is denied, the facts will still have to be proven later in trial.

In the Litigation Manual I illustrate the concept by supposing that a policeman has issued a ticket for exceeding the posted speed limit, but the ticket says you were going 25 mph in a 30 mph zone. There, even if what the ticket says is true (and in this case, specially if it is), it simply does not state a violation of the law. A similarly basic example in the debt law would be where you sued the other side under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act without alleging an action that violated the act.

Many motions to dismiss really seem to be calling the court’s attention to some obvious mistake, a simple oversight, perhaps. Naturally, however, many motions to dismiss are not so simple. In many cases, although the facts are clear, what the law provides or requires is not, and these would be cases appropriate for motions to dismiss.

You can move to dismiss any claim or count of the petition. If you do not seek to dismiss the entire petition, you have to answer the part you do not try to get dismissed.

 

Because the motion assumes that every fact alleged is considered true, motions to dismiss are said to be “testing the sufficiency of the pleadings.” Most courts will go ever further than that, and state that, if any set of facts (alleged or not) consistent with the pleadings could result in a valid claim, the motion to dismiss is to be denied, but from the point of view of a pro se defendant, this rule has limitations. Depending on unalleged facts can be a dangerous occupation for someone wanting to avoid a motion to dismiss.

Defendant’s Motions to Dismiss vs. Plaintiff’s Motions to Dismiss

Technically, a defendant’s motion to dismiss is treated in the same way as a plaintiff’s motion to dismiss, the only differences being who brings them and when. In any event, what is up for grabs is purely a legal question: does the law allow or prohibit certain action, and does it give a right to the person claiming it?

Despite the legal equivalence of the motions brought by plaintiff and defendant, it makes sense for us to look first at defendant’s motions, which you are likely to file against debt collectors, and secondly at plaintiffs’ motions to dismiss counterclaims or affirmative defenses, which debt collectors are likely to file against you.

Motions to Dismiss by Debt Defendants

When Petitions (or counterclaims) are filed, they are supposed to be following one of two types of pleading: “notice” pleading or “fact” pleading. The type of pleading required can make a very large difference, and it is determined by State law. In other words, your state requires either fact pleading or notice pleading. One of your first actions as a defendant in a debt lawsuit should be to find out which rule your state follows. Most states require fact pleading.

Fact Pleading

If your state requires fact pleading, then filing a motion to dismiss is as “simple” as looking at the elements (parts) of the case the plaintiff is alleging (its “prima facie” case), seeing if every fact necessary to prove that case is alleged, and moving to dismiss if any parts of the prima facie case is missing.  You might think that debt collectors, who file millions of these cases per year, would never omit a part of their case in the pleadings. In fact they do so quite often, and this is simply because of the nature of their business: they buy huge numbers of supposed debts with minimal paperwork, file cases by the truckload, and rarely get challenged by defendants or the courts. In reality, lawyers are creating forms that secretaries fill out much of the time. They are not sharp, in other words, nor do they need to worry very much about their petitions. It is easy for them to make mistakes in the pleadings, and they often do. And sometimes they do it on purpose.

For a simple example, consider the filing of a claim of breach of contract in Pennsylvania, where a plaintiff on such a claim must either state the terms of the contract or attach a copy of it. Debt collectors almost never do this despite the rule – because they can’t. They don’t have the contracts. The huge majority of the cases are won by default, but those who defend simply file a motion to dismiss (called “Preliminary Objections” in Pennsylvania). Eventually the cases of persistent defendants get dismissed with prejudice, but for each case that gets dismissed, probably thousands of inadequately pleaded cases result in default judgment for the debt collectors. And the debt collectors are never punished for flouting the law. See the attached sample motion and judgment.

Notice Pleading

Where the jurisdiction is “notice” pleading, a motion to dismiss is much more difficult to win. Notice pleading means that a petition must give the party being sued some “general idea” of what he is being sued for, and in some courts this is such a vague standard that it is almost impossible to succeed in your motion to dismiss. Unless the debt collector actually names its theory in a heading (as they often do), if it does not state all the elements of an obvious claim, your motion may well be a “Motion for More Definite Statement.” In this motion you point out that the plaintiff has not alleged any specific claim and you ask that the case be dismissed or that the debt collector be required to state the elements of a claim. Your argument there is that the vague petition fails to give you adequate notice of the claims being brought against you. This type of motion (for more definite statement) has many of the advantages of a motion to dismiss and should probably be brought if possible.

If you win that and the plaintiff then files an Amended Petition that is also inadequate in stating a claim, you will either oppose the amendment or file a new motion to dismiss.

Timing – When to File

There are two aspects of time you must consider when filing a Motion to Dismiss (or for More Definite Statement). The first of these is whether you must file your motion to dismiss before filing an Answer. In my opinion it is always a good idea to file a motion to dismiss – on any basis – before filing an Answer.

Creating a Motion or Cross Motion for Summary Judgment

When you’re being sued by the debt collector and have brought a counterclaim, you might bring a motion for summary judgment motion as to both parts of the case. They’re treated just a little differently differently. If they file a motion for summary judgement before you do, your motion would be called a “Cross-Motion,” and if they file first, you need to include your cross-motion with your response to their motion.

Just as we said about defending against a motion for summary judgment, these motions are first – and far more importantly – about the facts. Only secondarily do the arguments about what those facts might mean come in. Prove that they can’t show the facts to win their case – or that they can’t defend against your case – and you will win.

Filing a Motion as to the Debt Collector’s Case

The plaintiff has the burden of proof, and that makes a lot of difference in motions for summary judgment. It means that you can prove your defense against the debt collector either by showing that and one part of its case against you cannot be proved.

If the debt collector cannot prove ownership of the debt it is asserting against you, for example, its whole case must fail. Likewise if it can’t prove the amount of the debt or that you owe it. If any part of the plaintiff’s case fails, all of it does. And you can prove that it fails either by proving—remember,

you must show that there is “no dispute” about the things you are proving—that the debt collector is wrong (it isn’t your social security number or name, for example), or that the debt collector will not be able to prove the debt. 

How Can You Know What You Need to Know?

How could you prove the debt collector can’t prove something? Well, a simple example could be an old Mastercard account. Let’s say the debt collector has no admissible evidence that the account was ever yours. And this is not rare, by the way. It was hoping to get you to admit that it was (or not to defend yourself at all). But you testify that it was not or that you do not remember one way or another.

That leaves it with no evidence on this crucial issue.

Or suppose it wants to prove an amount owed, but all it has is an inadmissible computer tape (or nothing but bills it sent you) and you deny owing the amount. That leaves it without evidence. You want to prove that the debt collector is without evidence, and if you do, you should get a summary judgment.

How do you know in advance that it doesn’t have any admissible evidence on these things? Because you will have asked by interrogatories for everything they have. When they give it all to you, you will be able to say what they can or cannot prove.

Or what if one of the things they give you shows that the debt is owed by someone else? Or owned by someone else? All these things are possible, and they sometimes happen. 

When Do You File?

Consider what the debt collector must prove in order to show you owe it money. This is called its “prima facie” (pronounced in a wide variety of ways!) case. When you have the evidence you need that the debt collector cannot prove at least one part of its case against you, you will file your motion.

Motion for Summary Judgment on Your Counterclaim

Your motion for summary judgment as to your counterclaim is somewhat different. As the plaintiff in that claim, you have the burden of proof. That means that you must prove every part of your case, and they only have to prove one is missing. It means that instead of attacking on just one point, you must show undisputed facts as to all of them. 

Summary Judgment on FDCPA Claims

Luckily, the FDCPA really lends itself to motions for summary judgment. The FDCPA lends itself to summary judgment because you don’t need to prove that the debt collector intended to do anything wrong. You don’t have to prove that you believed anything it said. Or that you suffered any particular damages.

Plus, if the violation occurred in the legal process (by using a false or deceptive affidavit, for example) or by a deceptive or threatening letter from the debt collector, the proof is right there in written form.

Almost undeniable. Or completely undeniable.

You Can Prove Them, Though

You can prove those things, but you don’t have to. If you have a claim for emotional distress, for example, your actual deception or intimidation, their intent, and any harm to you could very well make a difference. You often don’t want them determined on summary judgment, though, because you want the jury to get the full impact of all the testimony, and a judgment on the issue might cause the judge to curtail some of it.

That means that all you have to do is prove that the affidavit was deceptive—which may be obvious on its face. Or the letter threatening. Or whatever. And remember that you will have done discovery to find out whatever wasn’t obvious. If you have any other claims against the debt collector this will probably be more important.

Again, you will follow the rules regarding summary judgment very, very carefully. Numbered paragraphs, attached memos, exhibits correctly marked, etc. Do all that, and you should have your summary judgment. 

Partial Summary Judgment

What if you prove that the debt collector violated the FDCPA but not that the debt is no good? What then? Well, it is possible to get what is called a “partial” summary judgment, where the court decides part of the case and leaves the rest for the jury to determine. You can prove they violated the FDCPA, but not how much they should pay, for example. And this is called “partial summary judgment as to liability but not damages.”

Defend against Motions to Dismiss Part 1

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How to Argue Motions in Court

What to Say and How to Say it

When you’re sued for debt, you may need to make or defend motions in court, and this sometimes means making arguments before the court. This video will help you know what to say and how to argue motions in court.

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Motions for Summary Judgment

Responding to Motions for Summary Judgment

Motions for Summary Judgment are among the most lethal weapons facing you as a pro se debt defendant. This video discusses what they are, how to protect yourself from them, and how you could use them to your advantage.

 

Click here for a related series of articles.

Responding to Motions for SJ Part 1

Responding to a Motion for Summary Judgment in a Debt Case

Introduction

If you are defending yourself pro se from the debt collectors, it’s sometimes the little things that can stump you. As I have often said, Summary Judgments are “fact intensive,” meaning that defending yourself from them will depend primarily upon getting the important facts to the judge in the proper way, while legal argument is actually much less important. How do you get the facts in front of the judge? What facts do you use and how do you put them into your brief? That’s what these articles will show you. (To see some of this on video, go here.)

You Must Know the Rules

The first thing you should know about motions for summary judgment is that they are carefully controlled by the Rules of Civil Procedure for your jurisdiction and by something called “Local Rules,” which you can get from the courthouse or its website. These rules tell you exactly what form the motion should take, what is required to oppose it, and how much time you have. Your first move if the debt collector files a motion for summary judgment should be to look up those rules and understand them. It’s critical, because a misstep as to form of your response or its timing could easily cost you the case. Don’t give your case away. Responding to Motions for Summary Judgment, even with the materials available at this site, takes time! It is a significant undertaking under the best of circumstances, and even though the debt collectors typically leave large enough loopholes for you to drive through, it takes time and effort to find and develop them. Do not wait till the last minute to start working on your response.

What Format Does a Motion for Summary Judgment (and Your Response Opposing) Take?

Every state of which I am aware now uses a similar format for motions for summary judgment. They require the movant (person bringing the motion) to create a list of “undisputed” facts called a “Statement of Facts” with proof from the record supporting them. And that proof can be testimony by affidavit or deposition, or it can be answers to interrogatories or documents. Then the motion for summary judgment refers to those facts as necessary as it makes legal arguments. To prevent the court from giving the debt collector a summary judgment, you must demonstrate that there are factual issues of significance that require a trial. So if you are defending, your first line of defense is to attack the facts and show that there are important disagreements.

Click Here For Part 2 of this Article

If you are representing yourself in debt litigation, and if you are facing a motion for summary judgment, you should consider purchasing the Response to Motions for Summary Judgment packet. This packet addresses an actual motion filed in a real case, and it deals very thoroughly with the facts and arguments actually made in a real case by a real debt collector (although the names have been changed to hide the identities of the people involved. It includes an attack on every phase of the debt collector’s motion including its rather bizarre motion for attorney’s fees and its deceptive use of an affidavit. It also includes an affidavit that could have been used in the case.