Should I Buy Your Motion for Summary Judgment Pack?

When Do you Need the Motion for Summary Judgment Pack?

If the other side has filed a motion for summary judgment against you and you want to defend only, you should get the Motion for Summary Judgment Defense Pack.

If the other side has filed a motion for summary judgment against you, and you want to defend and also file a motion for summary judgment against them on the same case, you should get the Motion for Summary Judgment Omni Pack.

And if you either want to file a motion for summary judgment against them (without their having filed one against you) you should get the Motion for Summary Judgment (Offense) Pack.

What is a Motion for Summary Judgment?

A motion for summary judgment is an “evidentiary” motion. That is, unlike a motion to dismiss, a motion for summary judgment seeks to determine a set of facts that are “uncontested” or not in dispute and asks the court to rule on how the law applies to them. What makes a judgment “summary” is that it is decided without a trial. A “motion” is the request to the court to issue the judgment.

Either party can file a motion for summary judgment. If the other side files one first, you put your response to theirs, and your own motion together and call it a “cross-motion.” Thus “cross-motion” really only refers to timing. Substantively, you will either be filing a motion for summary judgment against them, defending against their motion for summary judgment, or both.

Establish “Uncontested” Facts

Because disputes in the evidence are supposed to be resolved at trial, motions for summary judgment are supposed to be determined based only on “uncontested” facts. But “uncontested” and “facts” are terms of art, as you will see in the materials.  A fact is not established because you say it is so in the motion. A fact can only be established by evidence properly presented to the court. Likewise, a fact is not “contested” simply because you don’t like it or you say it isn’t so – it’s only contested by the admission of evidence that shows it isn’t so.

Illustration

Let’s make up an example to clarify how these things work. Suppose the debt collector is filing a motion for summary judgment that says you owe $1,000 on an old credit card. They put in an old statement showing you supposedly owe the money and an affidavit by one of their robo-signers that says the statement is “accurate” and that you haven’t paid the bill.

Their Case

That is pretty much exactly what the debt collectors do every time. Their evidence that you owe and haven’t paid is the credit card statement and the affidavit. They’ll say it’s “uncontested,” so what do you do?

Your Defense

You will object to the affidavit and credit card statement for legally powerful reasons (as shown by the summary judgment pack) and you will, if you can, add an affidavit of your own that says, roughly, “I don’t owe them, never owed them, didn’t get a statement, and never had an account with the bank they say this came from.”

Your effective objection SHOULD be enough, because it is up to them to present actual, admissible, evidence in support of their “uncontested facts.” But if you can add an affidavit of your own, the effect is much more powerful. Then you are both attacking their evidence and introducing contradictory evidence of your own.

Warning

Merely claiming in the Response to their Motion that you don’t owe the money would not keep their evidence from being “uncontested.” Understand? You must present evidence and attack the validity of their evidence.

Cross-Motions for Summary Judgment

Now (because of the nature of debt cases), if they can’t win a motion for summary judgment against you, you should almost always be able to win a cross-motion for summary judgment against them. That is, they have the burden of proof on their claim. If they can carry that burden, they will win the case. If they can’t, then they should lose (the whole case) – if you show it and file a cross-motion. Therefore, if they file a motion for summary judgment against you, you will almost always want to get the “Omni” MSJ pack. Filing a cross-motion does involve significantly more work, but if you can do so you might save yourself a lot of trouble later.

Your Motion for Summary Judgment

Suppose they don’t file a motion for summary judgment, but you have gone through discovery and found that the only things they have in support of their claims are an affidavit and the old statement used in the above example? As a matter of fact, that is typical. In that case you should consider filing your own Motion for Summary Judgment.

Motions for summary judgment require significant effort and require you to find out and follow various procedures rigorously.

So they are work.

Why You Should Do It

But if you win, you can cut short the process of the lawsuit and avoid trial. And even if you lose your motion for summary judgment you will be educating the judge to the issues and changing the way the judge and other side look at you. Therefore, we suggest you do it – if you have time after finding out through the discovery process that they don’t have what they need.

At a minimum, working your way through a motion for summary judgment will sharpen you tremendously on the law and facts of the case, and it will very likely result in winning one way or the other. Thus we recommend it if you can do it.

Motions for summary judgment are designed for situations where you can show certain decisive facts.

The Motion for Summary Judgment Pack is NOT…

The MSJ pack is not another way to get what you need to defend the lawsuit. It is material aimed at a specific procedural motion and moment in time. Defending yourself requires a commitment to a process. It could include motions to dismiss, answering the petition, filing a counterclaim, conducting discovery, moving to compel discovery, and various pretrial maneuvers. It rarely requires all of these things, but our Litigation Membership is what you need to prepare for the fight.

We would suggest that you might not ever need the motion for summary judgment pack, but even if you do need that, you will also want the litigation membership. The membership is the glue that holds all the parts of the lawsuit together.

Creating a Motion or Cross Motion for Summary Judgment

When you’re being sued by the debt collector and have brought a counterclaim, you might bring a motion for summary judgment motion as to both parts of the case. They’re treated just a little differently differently. If they file a motion for summary judgement before you do, your motion would be called a “Cross-Motion,” and if they file first, you need to include your cross-motion with your response to their motion.

Just as we said about defending against a motion for summary judgment, these motions are first – and far more importantly – about the facts. Only secondarily do the arguments about what those facts might mean come in. Prove that they can’t show the facts to win their case – or that they can’t defend against your case – and you will win.

Filing a Motion as to the Debt Collector’s Case

The plaintiff has the burden of proof, and that makes a lot of difference in motions for summary judgment. It means that you can prove your defense against the debt collector either by showing that and one part of its case against you cannot be proved.

If the debt collector cannot prove ownership of the debt it is asserting against you, for example, its whole case must fail. Likewise if it can’t prove the amount of the debt or that you owe it. If any part of the plaintiff’s case fails, all of it does. And you can prove that it fails either by proving—remember,

you must show that there is “no dispute” about the things you are proving—that the debt collector is wrong (it isn’t your social security number or name, for example), or that the debt collector will not be able to prove the debt. 

How Can You Know What You Need to Know?

How could you prove the debt collector can’t prove something? Well, a simple example could be an old Mastercard account. Let’s say the debt collector has no admissible evidence that the account was ever yours. And this is not rare, by the way. It was hoping to get you to admit that it was (or not to defend yourself at all). But you testify that it was not or that you do not remember one way or another.

That leaves it with no evidence on this crucial issue.

Or suppose it wants to prove an amount owed, but all it has is an inadmissible computer tape (or nothing but bills it sent you) and you deny owing the amount. That leaves it without evidence. You want to prove that the debt collector is without evidence, and if you do, you should get a summary judgment.

How do you know in advance that it doesn’t have any admissible evidence on these things? Because you will have asked by interrogatories for everything they have. When they give it all to you, you will be able to say what they can or cannot prove.

Or what if one of the things they give you shows that the debt is owed by someone else? Or owned by someone else? All these things are possible, and they sometimes happen. 

When Do You File?

Consider what the debt collector must prove in order to show you owe it money. This is called its “prima facie” (pronounced in a wide variety of ways!) case. When you have the evidence you need that the debt collector cannot prove at least one part of its case against you, you will file your motion.

Motion for Summary Judgment on Your Counterclaim

Your motion for summary judgment as to your counterclaim is somewhat different. As the plaintiff in that claim, you have the burden of proof. That means that you must prove every part of your case, and they only have to prove one is missing. It means that instead of attacking on just one point, you must show undisputed facts as to all of them. 

Summary Judgment on FDCPA Claims

Luckily, the FDCPA really lends itself to motions for summary judgment. The FDCPA lends itself to summary judgment because you don’t need to prove that the debt collector intended to do anything wrong. You don’t have to prove that you believed anything it said. Or that you suffered any particular damages.

Plus, if the violation occurred in the legal process (by using a false or deceptive affidavit, for example) or by a deceptive or threatening letter from the debt collector, the proof is right there in written form.

Almost undeniable. Or completely undeniable.

You Can Prove Them, Though

You can prove those things, but you don’t have to. If you have a claim for emotional distress, for example, your actual deception or intimidation, their intent, and any harm to you could very well make a difference. You often don’t want them determined on summary judgment, though, because you want the jury to get the full impact of all the testimony, and a judgment on the issue might cause the judge to curtail some of it.

That means that all you have to do is prove that the affidavit was deceptive—which may be obvious on its face. Or the letter threatening. Or whatever. And remember that you will have done discovery to find out whatever wasn’t obvious. If you have any other claims against the debt collector this will probably be more important.

Again, you will follow the rules regarding summary judgment very, very carefully. Numbered paragraphs, attached memos, exhibits correctly marked, etc. Do all that, and you should have your summary judgment. 

Partial Summary Judgment

What if you prove that the debt collector violated the FDCPA but not that the debt is no good? What then? Well, it is possible to get what is called a “partial” summary judgment, where the court decides part of the case and leaves the rest for the jury to determine. You can prove they violated the FDCPA, but not how much they should pay, for example. And this is called “partial summary judgment as to liability but not damages.”

Motions for Summary Judgment

Responding to Motions for Summary Judgment

Motions for Summary Judgment are among the most lethal weapons facing you as a pro se debt defendant. This video discusses what they are, how to protect yourself from them, and how you could use them to your advantage.

 

Click here for a related series of articles.

Responding to Motions for SJ Part 1

Responding to a Motion for Summary Judgment in a Debt Case

Introduction

If you are defending yourself pro se from the debt collectors, it’s sometimes the little things that can stump you. As I have often said, Summary Judgments are “fact intensive,” meaning that defending yourself from them will depend primarily upon getting the important facts to the judge in the proper way, while legal argument is actually much less important. How do you get the facts in front of the judge? What facts do you use and how do you put them into your brief? That’s what these articles will show you. (To see some of this on video, go here.)

You Must Know the Rules

The first thing you should know about motions for summary judgment is that they are carefully controlled by the Rules of Civil Procedure for your jurisdiction and by something called “Local Rules,” which you can get from the courthouse or its website. These rules tell you exactly what form the motion should take, what is required to oppose it, and how much time you have. Your first move if the debt collector files a motion for summary judgment should be to look up those rules and understand them. It’s critical, because a misstep as to form of your response or its timing could easily cost you the case. Don’t give your case away. Responding to Motions for Summary Judgment, even with the materials available at this site, takes time! It is a significant undertaking under the best of circumstances, and even though the debt collectors typically leave large enough loopholes for you to drive through, it takes time and effort to find and develop them. Do not wait till the last minute to start working on your response.

What Format Does a Motion for Summary Judgment (and Your Response Opposing) Take?

Every state of which I am aware now uses a similar format for motions for summary judgment. They require the movant (person bringing the motion) to create a list of “undisputed” facts called a “Statement of Facts” with proof from the record supporting them. And that proof can be testimony by affidavit or deposition, or it can be answers to interrogatories or documents. Then the motion for summary judgment refers to those facts as necessary as it makes legal arguments. To prevent the court from giving the debt collector a summary judgment, you must demonstrate that there are factual issues of significance that require a trial. So if you are defending, your first line of defense is to attack the facts and show that there are important disagreements.

Click Here For Part 2 of this Article

If you are representing yourself in debt litigation, and if you are facing a motion for summary judgment, you should consider purchasing the Response to Motions for Summary Judgment packet. This packet addresses an actual motion filed in a real case, and it deals very thoroughly with the facts and arguments actually made in a real case by a real debt collector (although the names have been changed to hide the identities of the people involved. It includes an attack on every phase of the debt collector’s motion including its rather bizarre motion for attorney’s fees and its deceptive use of an affidavit. It also includes an affidavit that could have been used in the case.

Responding to Motions for SJ Part 2

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If they File a Motion for Summary Judgment

“Do I need to respond to their Motion for Summary Judgment or can I file a motion to dismiss at this point?”

I received this question in a teleconference, and it brings up three extremely important issues that every person defending himself or herself from debt collectors needs to keep in mind. First, the comparative functions of a Motion to Dismiss and Motion for Summary Judgment. Second and more generally, the importance of responding to every motion or action taken by the debt collectors, and third, still more generally, the level of effort you need to put into your defense. Here’s the whole question as it was asked:

I requested discovery and responded. A few weeks later, they filed a motion for summary judgment with an affidavit for indebtedness (which was not included in their discovery), a bill of sale and assignment (which does not include any amounts or any account information), and a copy of a 2008 card statement. Do I need to respond to their Motion for Summary Judgment? Or can I I file a Motion to Dismiss at this point?

Motions to Dismiss vs. Motions for Summary Judgment

There is a lot of confusion about motions to dismiss and motions for summary judgment, even among some experienced lawyers. To put it very simply, regardless of what a party filing a motion calls it, if the motion makes reference to, or depends in any way for its outcome, on matters other than the pleadings, the motion is to be considered a motion for summary judgment. That means the motion should follow the rules regarding motions for summary judgment, and you have the time permitted by the rules for summary judgments (generally longer) rather than responding to motions to dismiss (generally shorter).

The pleadings consist of the Petition, Answer, Counterclaim and Reply to Counterclaim. For brief videos discussing each type of motion, see “Motions to Dismiss” and “Motions for Summary Judgment.”

If there is any important fact in the motion that is not also in one of the pleadings, the motion should be treated as a motion for summary judgment. Thus a motion to dismiss is not the correct motion to file when the other side files a motion depending on undisclosed discovery or when the only evidence it provides in discovery would not be enough to prove its case.In this case, where the debt collector has already filed a motion for summary judgment, you must respond in opposition to their motion for summary judgment and, in the same response, file a “cross-motion” for summary judgment.

The Need to Respond

Whenever the debt collector files a motion of any sort you need to respond to it.

Theoretically, if you filed a motion to dismiss, the court might look at your motion first, decide that the debt collector has no case, and dismiss the action as a whole. That would be easy and convenient for you. There’s too good a chance, however, that the judge will consider his or her convenience before considering yours. In fact, you should take that as a given – as something that will definitely happen. You should expect the judge to rule on the easiest thing available and skip everything else – and what’s easier than an uncontested motion? Therefore you must oppose any motion the other side files. In my opinion this is especially important when you’re a “little guy” taking on a “bigger guy.” The courts are – often if not always – prejudiced in favor of the big guy, and you cannot afford to leave an “easy out.”

Level of Effort

I am often asked variations on, “should I go ahead and… ‘X’ or wait until… ‘Y’ happens?” Should you ever wait for either the other side to take some action or for the court to rule on something? Generally, NO. There are two reasons for this: time is always limited; and it is important to keep the initiative in litigation as much as possible.

Time Is Limited

Whether or not the court enters a “scheduling order” explicitly stating when things are due, every case is on a “time clock.” You cannot waste time. Judges will often wait until a few days before the time set for trial to rule on motions for summary judgment. I do not know why this is so – but it is simply a fact, and so it means that much of trial preparation, motions, discovery and all the rest, are conducted after a motion to dismiss or for summary judgment has been filed. You simply cannot wait for a court ruling.

Waiting for the other side is much the same. Litigants are always looking for advantages, and if they get the sense that you are going to wait for them, the debt collector will very likely take advantage of that fact. They may simply delay until you have no more time to do what you need to do, or they may delay until they have time to serve discovery on you – or take some other action which takes control of the case.

Keep the Initiative

Keeping the initiative is extremely important in litigation. It is discouraging to them, and encouraging to you, to be “calling the shots.” When you do, you can take the time you need to figure things out, you can think strategically rather than reactively, and you open up a long, weary path for the other side. When you keep working, you show the other side that continuing to chase you will be expensive, risky and… annoying. You heighten their sense that they should be spending their time chasing easier victims – or should find something actually good to do with their time (maybe, eventually). And finally as you spend effort on your case you support your own morale and you learn more about your case and the law.

Conclusion

For all these reasons, you should take what Tony Robbins calls “massive action.” You should take every action you can to achieve your victory. Let the other side consider how much it is costing in time and money to respond to you. If they get the sense you’re thinking that way they are much more likely to drop your case and look for greener pastures.

Cross-Motions for Summary Judgment

Cross-Motions for Summary Judgment

If you think the debt collector hasn’t shown you any real evidence in the discovery phase – and you’ve filed your motion to compel to eliminate any doubts about what it’s got – then maybe you should file a motion for summary judgment. But what if the debt collector files one first? Then you want to file a “Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment.”

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A Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment is just the same as a (regular) Motion, except that it’s a little more complicated: you both have to prove – in one part – that there are “genuine issues of material fact” about the things they say, and that there is no real dispute about the things you say.

Cross-motions can be on the same issues. For example, you might both be claiming that the undisputed facts show something about the debt, and you might be surprised how often that comes up. Since proof of the debt so often hinges on the ability of the debt collector to use business records it didn’t create, they could argue that the records prove there’s a debt, while you argue that, since they cannot use the records, the proof is that they cannot show you owe the money.

It is also possible for cross motions to be directed at different things: they argue that the proof shows you owe the money, whereas you argue it doesn’t and that they violated the FDCPA.

Responding to Motions for Summary Judgment

Motions for Summary Judgment are among the most dangerous obstacles to justice that people defending themselves pro se from debt collection actions face. If you are facing such a motion, act quickly–you must find and stay within time limits, and response to motions for summary judgment can take some time to write. This video should help.